Technology in the commercial context would mean 'knowledge of how to make use of the factors of production, to produce goods or services for which there is an economic demand'. Technology innovation both hurts and helps the environment. Therefore, intellectual property, by promoting innovation may be both good and bad for the environment. However, technology, as far as Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) are concerned, works for the benefi t of the environment. ESTs can be considered to be those benefi cial environmental technology innovations which provide a net environmental benefit compared to existing technologies in terms of resources consumed, wastes produced, and risks to human health and the environment, for example, waste management technologies for solid and hazardous wastes, products and methods for cleaning up pollution, recycling equipment, and processes.
This publication is a collection of papers and articles on various sustainable development and environmental governance topics covering environmental protection, rural tourism, biotechnology issues, environmental trade, timber trade, role of women, human rights, renewable energy, the judiciary, and constitutional laws in India.
The relationship between human rights and contributions to knowledge has been at the centre of important debates over the past several years. The International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural rights is in many ways the most crucial legal instrument through which the relationship between the two fields can be examined.1 Firstly it recognize for instance the rights to health food, technology, which are some of the rights whose realization can be affected in developing countries that adopt or strengthen intellectual property rights framework based on the commitments they take under the TRIPS(Trade related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) or other intellectual property. Secondly, it recognizes at Article 15(1) C, the need to reward individuals and groups that make specific intellectual contributions that benefit society.
Tourism is both vulnerable to climate change while at the same time contributing to it including direct and indirect impacts such as more extreme weather events, increasing safety concerns, water shortages, biodiversity loss and damage to attractions at destinations, among others. Continued climate degradation and disruption to cultural and natural heritage negatively affect the tourism sector resulting in the reduction of the attractiveness of destinations and lessen economic opportunities at the national and the international level.